Table 3

A partial list of typical free-space graphene-based optical modulators

Structure and reference Modulation depth (dB) Bandwidth (MHz) Power consumption (fJ bit−1)
Si photonic crystal cavity [53] 6
Si photonic crystal cavity [54] >10
Si photonic crystal cavity [55] 3.2 1200 1000
Si high contrast grating [56] 11 1
Si nanohole array [57] >10 0.001

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