Open Access

Table 1

Summary of therapeutic MBs and NBs for different biomedical applications

Materials Gas types Advantages Size Biomedical applications Reference
Doxorubicin O2 NBs Chemotherapy 184–207 nm MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and Hela cervical cancer [15]
Gas vesicles O2 NBs PDT 300–330 nm SCC7 carcinoma cancer [18]
ICG O2 NBs PDT 220 nm Oral cancer [20]
Biotin functionalised Rose Bengal O2 MBs SDT 1–2 μm BxPc-3 pancreatic cancer [16]
Lipid NO MBs Chemotherapy 1.012 ±
0.712 μm
Thrombus and ischemia-reperfusion injury [21]
Streptavidin NO MBs Chemotherapy 0.96 ± 0.07 mm Immunosuppressive and anti-thrombotic [22]
Lipid NO MBs Chemotherapy 3.85 μm Proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of the mesenchymal stem cells [28]
H2O2 and L-arginine NO MBs Chemotherapy 2.32 ± 0.21 μm Hyperglycemia theranostics [30]
Lipid Xe MBs Chemotherapy 4.2 ± 0.16 μm Imaging [32]
Lipid Xe NBs Chemotherapy 225 ± 11 nm Acute ischemic stroke [35]
Lipid Xe MBs Chemotherapy Early brain injury [36]
Lipid Xe MBs Chemotherapy Traumatic brain injury [40]
Porphyrin/camptothecin-floxuridine C3F8 MBs
and NBs
Chemotherapy and PDT 1 μm (MBs)
30 to 100 nm (NBs)
HT-29 colorectal cancer [43]
Porphyrin derivatives C3F8 NBs SDT 144.66 to 199.5 nm LS 174T colorectal cancer [42]
Rose bengal C3F8 MBs
SDT 130 nm (NBs) HT-29 colorectal cancer [46]
Rose Bengal C4F10
SDT 1.2–2.2 μm LNCaP-Lucprostate cancer [45]
Folic acid, IR-780 iodide C3F8 NBs PTT 539–643 nm U87 xenografts [48]
Porphyrin, HIF1α-siRNA C3F8 MBs PDT and gene therapy 1 to 7 μm Triple negative
breast cancer
Folate C3F8 NBs Physical targeted therapy 80 to 790 nm FR-positive cancer [47]
Doxorubicin C3F8 NBs Chemotherapy about 350 nm Anaplastic thyroid cancer [41]
Platelet membrane SF6 NBs Chemotherapy 246.57 ± 14.32 nm Vascular endothelial injury [56]
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles SF6 NBs Chemotherapy 227.40 ± 87.21 nm Ischemic stroke [57]
Cas9/sgRNA protein SF6 MBs Gene therapy 1.19 μm Androgenic alopecia [58]

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