Figure 1


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Monthly characteristics of ozone pollution and its precursors in the Shanghai metropolitan area. (A) Monthly pattern of MDA8 over the National Air Quality Standard (160 μg/m 3) rates from 2013 to 2019, and the monthly temperature from 2013 to 2019. (B) Monthly pattern of the OH reactivity of the observed VOCs (kVOCs), CO (kCO), and NO2 (kNO2 ), and the ratio of (kVOCs + kCO) to kNO2 , which were the average results from January 2017 to December 2019. (C) Monthly pattern of the composition of kVOCs.

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