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Figure 3


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Endomembrane compartments for vesicle-dependent UPE. In yeast (up), an ERGIC-like structure, called CUPS, is generated near the ERES for the secretion of UPE cargoes like Acb1. The cargoes may enter into the CUPS and transport out of the cell through a yet-unknown itinerary likely involving MVBs or secretory autophagosomes. In mammals (down), after the translocation of UPE cargoes into the ERGIC, multiple membrane compartments downstream of the ERGIC may be involved in the delivery of cargoes out of the cell, including secretory autophagosomes, MVBs, and secretory lysosomes. Distinct SNARE and RAB proteins are involved in the selectivity of degradative and secretory autophagy (e.g., SEC22B, RAB8A, RAB27A). GRASP and TRIM16 may be involved in Golgi bypass and SEC22B loading to UPE vehicles. In addition to the ERGIC as a station for cargo loading, MVB invagination and autophagosome engulfment, as well as a hybrid pathway the LC3-dependent EV loading and secretion (LDELS) pathway, also participate in the loading and secretion of UPE cargoes, especially RNA granules and organelles.

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