Natl Sci Open
Volume 2, Number 5, 2023
Special Topic: Gene Editing towards Translation
|Number of page(s)||32|
|Section||Life Sciences and Medicine|
|Published online||18 July 2023|
Nucleases in gene-editing technologies: past and prologue
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Frontier Research Center for Biological Structure, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2 Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
* Corresponding author (email: email@example.com)
Revised: 5 March 2023
Accepted: 7 March 2023
In recent decades, gene-editing technologies, typically based on deoxyribonucleases to specifically modify genomic sequences, have dramatically remodeled various aspects of life sciences, including fundamental research, breeding, and medical therapeutics. So far, four types of endonucleases have been adopted and optimized as gene-editing tools: meganuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and Cas nuclease from the CRISPR-Cas system. Each tool comes with its own advantages and limitations. Over the last ten years, RNA-guided Cas nucleases have been extensively investigated and successfully implemented in almost all mammalian cells due to their remarkable editing efficacy, high specificity, and flexibility in targeting the specific locus. Diverse Cas nuclease, together with meganuclease, ZFN, and TALEN, represent the key strategies for nuclease-based gene editing. However, systematic introductions and comparisons among four types of nucleases are not yet available. Here, we overview the capabilities of four types of nucleases along the development history of gene editing and describe the molecular mechanisms of substrate recognition and cleavage. Particularly, we summarize the promising CRISPR-Cas systems as well as modified tools applied for gene editing in the eukaryotic genome. Moreover, how the re-modulated nucleases and other nucleases, either naturally occurring or AI-designed, might manipulate DNA sequences is discussed and proposed.
Key words: gene editing / CRISPR / ZFN / TALEN / meganuclease / novel gene-editing system
© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Science Press and EDP Sciences.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.